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Guidelines for writing a scientific research paper

Format for the paper Edit your paper! A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work.

  • How did you answer this question?
  • An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured.

The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance" Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.

For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts.

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They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper.

It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract.

It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough.

End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.

If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this guidelines for writing a scientific research paper.

  • Queer place for qwerty;
  • The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing...

You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text.

Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.

If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question?

Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.

You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. Here is one commonly used way: In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places: Scarlet 1990 thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the guidelines for writing a scientific research paper Indigo and Mauve, 1994 and wombat Magenta, et al.

In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Queer place for qwerty: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, 26-31. Unfortunately, they're all the same page. Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: The rats were injected guidelines for writing a scientific research paper the drug.

I injected the drug into the rat. Be careful with commonly confused words: Temperature has an effect on the reaction. Temperature affects the reaction.

  • Do not put results in this section;
  • For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes;
  • If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results";
  • Be careful with commonly confused words:

I used solutions in various concentrations. Less food can't count numbers of food Fewer animals can count numbers of animals A large amount of food can't count them A large number of animals can count them The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin. The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. This sentence implies that there are erythrocytes elsewhere that don't contain hemoglobin.

Write at a level that's appropriate for your audience. Use the active voice. It's clearer and more concise than the passive voice. An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured. The rats ate more and gained weight. Use the first person. It is thought Write: I think Instead of: The samples were analyzed Write: I analyzed the samples 4.

Use verbs instead of abstract nouns Instead of: Use strong verbs instead of "to be" Instead of: The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing. I know there are professors in this country who 'ligate' arteries. Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well.