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A discussion on mental health disorders through history and the ways to treat them

History[ edit ] Early glimpses of treatment of mental illness included dunking in cold water by Samuel Willard physicianwho reportedly established the first American hospital for mental illness. The practice of individual psychotherapy as a treatment of mental disorders is about 100 years old.

Sigmund Freud 1856—1939 was the first one to introduce this concept in psychoanalysis. Beck, an American psychiatrist. It consist in helping the patient learn effective ways to overcome their problems and difficulties that causes them distress. Skinner were among the first to work on behavior therapy. He induced seizures through a series of injections, as a means to attempt to treat schizophrenia.

  • Physiological treatments Antipsychotic agents Antipsychotic medications, which are also known as neuroleptics and major tranquilizers , belong to several different chemical groups but are similar in their therapeutic effects;
  • For a discussion of current challenges in mental health care and proposed solutions, please see Module 6;
  • Several different techniques may be required;
  • Other kinds of psychiatric medication gradually came into use, such as " psychic energizers " and lithium;
  • It is widely theorized that depression is partly caused by reduced quantities or reduced activity of one or more neurotransmitters in the brain;
  • A drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis , iproniazid , was found to be effective as an antidepressant in the mid-1950s.

Because of this substitution the new theory was called electro-convulsive therapy ECT. The first drugs used for this purpose were extracted from plants with psychoactive properties.

Louis Lewin, in 1924, was the first one to introduce a classification of drugs and plants that had properties of this kind. The discovery of modern drugs prevailed during the 20th century.

Lithium was discovered as a treatment of mania, by John F. Cade in 1949, "and Hammond 1871 used lithium bromide for 'acute mania with depression'". Some believed that stated that psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system and that is, in principle, they should be approached for treatments in the same way as physical illness arose from Hippocrates's ideas.

One of the most important among them was Benjamin Rush.

History of mental disorders

Benjamin Rush 1746—1813 was considered the Father of American Psychiatry for his many works and studies in the mental health field. He tried to classify different types of mental disorders, he theorized about their causes, and tried to find possible cures for them. Rush believed that mental disorders were caused by poor blood circulation, though he was wrong.

George Parkman 1790—1849 got his medical degree at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

  • The approach represented an attempt toward respectful treatment as opposed to neglect or brutality , including work, the avoidance of physical methods of restraint, and respect for the individual patient;
  • Many patients also experience other symptoms, such as hypersensitivity to noise and light as well as muscle twitching;
  • Contrary to popular belief, the anxiety that is produced during such controlled exposure is not usually harmful;
  • Lithium, however, generated little interest until its dramatic effectiveness in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder was reported in the mid-1960s;
  • This is true, for example, of relaxation training and anxiety-management training.

He was influenced by Benjamin Rush, who inspired him to take interest in the state asylums. He trained at the Parisian Asylum. Parkman wrote several papers on treatment for the mentally ill. He believed they should be treated like people and did so in a caring manner. He banned narcotics, mechanical restraints, and imprisonment while he was in charge at Peoria State Asylum.

Psychotherapy is an interpersonal intervention, usually provided by a mental health professional such as a clinical psychologist, that employs any of a range of specific psychological techniques. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is used for a wide variety of disorders, based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder.

There are various kinds of CBT therapy, and offshoots such as dialectical behavior therapy. Psychoanalysisaddressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic therapy or family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of relationships as well as individuals themselves.

Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. Some therapies are for a specific disorder only, for example interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. Mental health professionals often pick and choose techniques, employing an eclectic or integrative approach tailored to a particular disorder and individual. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be issues of trust, confidentiality and engagement.

To regulate the potentially powerful influences of therapies, psychologists hold themselves to a set of ethical standers for the treatment of people with mental disorders, written by the American Psychological Association. These ethical standards include: Medication[ edit ] Psychiatric medication is also widely used to treat mental disorders. These are licensed psychoactive drugs usually prescribed by a psychiatrist or family doctor. There are several main groups.

History of Mental Health Treatment

Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical depression as well as often for anxiety and other disorders. However, they are also often used in smaller doses to treat anxiety. There may also be off-label use. There can be problems with adverse effects and adherence. Aripiprazole was the first drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive treatment of MDD in adults with inadequate response to antidepressant therapy in the current episode.

Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine block both the D2 Dopamine receptors as well as 5HT2A serotonin receptors. The most severe side effect of antipsychotics is agranulocytosis, a depression of white blood cell count with unknown cause, and some patients may also experience photosensitivity.

Only two MAO inhibitors remain on the market in the United States because they alter the metabolism of the dietary amino acid tyramine which can lead to a hypertensive crisis. These drugs share many similarities with the tricyclic antidepressants but are more selective in their action.

The greatest risk of the SSRIs is an increase in violent and suicidal behavior, particularly in children and adolescents.

Scientists began completing studies, which were often highly problematic due to problems such as getting patients to complete their trials, controlling for all possible variables, and finding adequate ways to test progress. Different studies have found this time to be from twenty minutes to several hours. No single regimented workout has been agreed upon as most effective for any mental illness at this time.

The exercise programs prescribed are mostly intended to get patients doing some form of physical activity, as the benefits of doing any form of exercise have been proven to be better than doing nothing at all.

Psychosurgery, including deep brain stimulation, is another available treatment for some disorders. Each form of these therapy involves performing, creating, listening to, observing, or being a part of the therapeutic act. Services for mental disorders Mental health services may be based in hospitals, clinics or the community.

  1. It is not known exactly how antipsychotic medications work. Behavioral psychotherapy This approach to the treatment of mental disorders draws upon principles derived from experimental psychology—mainly learning theory.
  2. By the end of the 18th century, concern over the care of the mentally ill had become so great among educated people in Europe and North America that governments were forced to act.
  3. He described common practices of dietetics , bloodletting, drugs, talking therapy, incubation in temples, exorcism , incantations and amulets , as well as restraints and "tortures" to restore rationality, including starvation, being terrified suddenly, agitation of the spirit, and stoning and beating. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is used for a wide variety of disorders, based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder.
  4. When confronted with unexplainable, irrational behavior and by suffering and upheaval, people have perceived evil.

Often an individual may engage in different treatment modalities and use various mental health services. These may be under case management sometimes referred to as "service coordination"use inpatient or day treatment. Patients can utilize a psychosocial rehabilitation program or take part in an assertive community treatment program. Providing optimal treatments earlier in the course of a mental health disorder may prevent further relapses and ongoing disability.

This has led to a new early intervention in psychosis service approach for psychosis Some approaches are based on a recovery model of mental disorder, and may focus on challenging stigma and social exclusion and creating empowerment and hope.

Two types of mental health stigmas include social stigma and perceived stigma. Though separated into different categories, the two can interact with each other, where prejudicial attitudes in social stigma lead to the internalization of discriminatory perceptions in perceived stigma.

Treatment of mental disorders

The stigmatization of mental illnesses can elicit stereotypes, some common ones including violence, incompetence, and blame. When it does, prejudice leads to discrimination, the behavioral reaction.

Prejudice frequently disallows people with mental illnesses from finding suitable housing or procuring good jobs. Researchers have found that an inverse relationship exists between public stigma and care seeking, as well as between stigmatizing attitudes and treatment adherence. Research has shown a significant relationship between shame and avoiding treatment. A study measuring this relationship found that research participants who expressed shame from personal experiences with mental illnesses were less likely to participate in treatment.

Research showed that people with psychiatric diagnoses were more likely to avoid services if they believed family members would have a negative reaction to said services.

As such, the interaction between the two constructs impact care seeking. List of treatments[ edit ].