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American colonization society s plan to send

By 1867, the American Colonization Society helped more than 13,000 freedmen and former slaves emigrate to Liberia. The organization was formally dissolved in 1964. Robert Finley as an attempt to satisfy two groups in America.

Ironically, these groups were on opposite ends of the spectrum involving slavery in the early 1800s. One group consisted of philanthropistsclergy and abolitionists who wanted to free African slaves and their descendants and provide them with the opportunity to return to Africa.

The other group was the slave owners who feared the freedmen would disrupt their society and wanted to deport and expel them from America. They met again one week later and adopted a constitution. Membership certificate for the American Colonization Society Finley suggested at the inaugural meeting of an African Society that a colony be established in Africa to take free people, most of whom had been born free, away from the United States.

Finley meant to colonize " with their consent the free people of color residing in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress may deem most expedient.

It was instrumental in the establishment and founding the country of Liberia. During the next three years, the society raised money by selling membership. The Society's members relentlessly pressured Congress and the president for support.

  1. The Nautilus sailed twice in 1821 and established a settlement at Mesurado Bay on an island they named Perseverance.
  2. Despite deteriorating political conditions in the United States, however, the vast majority of blacks rejected this new call for emigration.
  3. Nevertheless, in the next decade 2,638 former slaves migrated to the area. Finley meant to colonize " with their consent the free people of color residing in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress may deem most expedient.

In addition to providing emigration passage for freedmen, the ACS purchased the freedom of American slaves and paid their passage to Liberia. Although Henry Clay led the campaign, it failed.

  1. The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840.
  2. References Fox, Early Lee.
  3. Robert Finley as an attempt to satisfy two groups in America. Criticism Beginning in the 1830s, the society was harshly attacked by some abolitionists , who tried to discredit colonization as a slaveholders' scheme and the American Colonization Society as merely propaganda for the continuation of slavery in the United States.

The society did, however, succeed in its appeals to some state legislatures. In its Thirty-Fourth Annual Report, the society acclaimed the news as "a great Moral demonstration of the propriety and necessity of state action! The ACS maintained control over the colony of Liberia until 1847 when, under the perception that the Great Britain might annex the settlement, Liberia was proclaimed a free and independent state.

  • The settlers with European- African lineage; freed slaves from slave ships and the West Indies ; and indigenous native people;
  • With much fanfare the ACS sent another two thousand blacks to Liberia.

Through the members of the ACS, the country was provided with a constitution that was fashioned after the American model. By 1867 the ACS had sent more than 13,000 emigrants. After the American Civil Warwhen many emancipated slaves wanted to go to Liberia, financial support for colonization waned.

During its later years the society focused on educational and missionary efforts in Liberia rather than further emigration. First colony The ship arrived first at Freetown, Sierra Leone then sailed south to what is now the Northern coast of Liberia and made an effort to establish a settlement. All three ACS agents and 22 of the emigrants died within three weeks from yellow fever.

The remainders returned to Sierra Leone and waited for another ship. The Nautilus sailed twice in 1821 and established a settlement at Mesurado Bay on an island they named Perseverance.

The native Africans resisted the expansion of the settlers resulting in many armed conflicts. Nevertheless, in the next decade 2,638 former slaves migrated to the area. Government to accept freed slaves captured from slave ships interdicted en route to and in American waters.

Expansion and growth Joseph Jenkins Robertsfirst president of Liberia During the next 20 years the colony continued to grow and establish economic stability.

Since the establishment of the colony, the ACS employed white agents to govern the colony.

  • On July 26, 1847, the legislature of Liberia declared itself an independent state, with Roberts elected as its first president;
  • The ACS maintained control over the colony of Liberia until 1847 when, under the perception that the Great Britain might annex the settlement, Liberia was proclaimed a free and independent state.

In 1842 Joseph Jenkins Roberts became the first non-white governor of Liberia. On July 26, 1847, the legislature of Liberia declared itself an independent state, with Roberts elected as its first president. The Americo-Liberian settlers declared the independence of the Republic of Liberia. The settlers regarded Africa as a "Promised Land," but they did not integrate into an African society.

Once in Africa, they referred to themselves as "Americans" and were recognized as such by local Africans and by British colonial authorities in neighboring Sierra Leone.

The society in Liberia developed into three segments: The settlers with European- African lineage; freed slaves from slave ships and the West Indies ; and indigenous native people. These groups would have a profound affect on the history of Liberia.

Criticism Beginning in the 1830s, the society was harshly attacked by some abolitionistswho tried to discredit colonization as a slaveholders' scheme and the American Colonization Society as merely propaganda for the continuation of slavery in the United States. Most of the presidents of the ACS tended toward Southerners. Ralph Randolph Gurley, who headed the society until 1844.

Conceived as the society's propaganda organ, the Repository promoted both colonization and Liberia.

American Colonization Society

Among the items printed were articles about Africa, letters of praise, official dispatches stressing the prosperity and steady growth of the colony, information about emigrants, and lists of donors. Failures The aims of the society were various. It was supported not only by those who were abolitionists on moral grounds, but also by Southerners fearful of organized revolt by free blacks, and by Northerners concerned that an influx of black workers would hurt the economic opportunities.

Early in his presidency, Lincoln tried repeatedly to arrange resettlements of the kind the ACS supported, but each arrangement failed.

  • The Nautilus sailed twice in 1821 and established a settlement at Mesurado Bay on an island they named Perseverance;
  • Colonization, according to Finley, would thus benefit American blacks as well at the entire nation by promoting a gradual end to slavery;
  • The organization was formally dissolved in 1964;
  • He led a meeting which created the ACS on December 21, 1816;
  • Oates observed that Lincoln thought it immoral to ask black soldiers to fight for the United States and then remove them to Africa after their military service;
  • American Colonization Society http:

By 1863, some believe that Lincoln abandoned the idea following the use of black troops. Lincoln biographer Stephen B. Oates observed that Lincoln thought it immoral to ask black soldiers to fight for the United States and then remove them to Africa after their military service. While others like Michael Lind believe that as late 1864 or 1865 Lincoln continued to hold out hope for colonization, noting that he asked attorney general Edward Bates if the Rev.

James Mitchell could stay on as "your assistant or aid in the matter of executing the several acts of Congress relating to the emigration or colonizing of the freed Blacks.

Butler claimed that only two weeks before he died, Lincoln had asked him to investigate the possibility of colonizing colored troops to Panama in order to build a canal because Lincoln feared that they might initiate a "race war" after the Civil War ended. Three of the reasons the movement never became very successful were the objections raised by blacks and abolitionists, the enormous scale of the task of moving so many people there were four million free blacks in the U.

Lemuel Haynes, a free black Presbyterian minister at the time of the society's formation, argued passionately that God 's providential plan would eventually defeat slavery and lead to the harmonious integration of the races as equals.

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Library of Congress In 1913 and again at its formal dissolution in 1964, the society donated its records to the U. The material contains a wealth of information about the foundation of the society, its role in establishing Liberia, efforts to manage and defend the colony, fund-raising, recruitment of settlers, conditions for black citizens of the American South, and the way in which black settlers built and led the new nation.

References Fox, Early Lee. The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840. Crossing the Danger Water: The American Colonization Society: An Avenue to freedom? University Press of America, 2006.

ISBN 978-0761833598 External links.