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The journey of the blood physical education essay

  1. The circulatory system is made up of blood vessels that carry blood away from and towards the heart.
  2. In summary, the aim of this essay has been to set the backdrop, the larger context, for the challenges that lie ahead in promoting physical activity population-wide.
  3. In attempting to understand physical activity as a health-enhancing behavior, it is useful to adopt an ecological perspective Sallis and Owen, 1997.

Advanced Search Abstract The aim of this essay is to provide an overview of initiatives designed to increase physical activity among different populations and in different settings, and to set the context for the major challenges that lie ahead. The decline in habitual physical activity with modernization, and the causal link between physical activity and health are briefly reviewed.

The need to understand physical activity as a health behavior and examples of behavior change theories that have been applied to the promotion of physical activity are discussed. Diverse projects and campaigns in three countries, i. South Africa, Australia and the US, are highlighted. Common themes found in these physical activity initiatives include the development of a theory-driven research base, inclusion of behavioral and social scientists on multidisciplinary teams, and advocacy for environmental changes that promote physical activity.

Within the next decade, research projects and national campaigns such as those described herein will yield important new findings on how to increase physical activity levels among targeted sectors of the population. The research agenda for the future includes development of both basic and applied research on physical activity, and the integration of theory across social, behavioral and biomedical disciplines. Introduction The the journey of the blood physical education essay species was designed for movement.

Until the mid-19th century, humans lived as gatherers, scavengers, toolmakers, hunters, farmers and artisans. Our species not only survived but flourished for several thousand generations prior to the advent of the automobile, television, video games and the Internet. Within only a few generations, the physical activity demands of work, domestic chores and leisure time have decreased so dramatically as to be nearly non-existent in industrialized and urbanized environments. However, it has also become increasingly clear that many of the chronic diseases we face today are associated fundamentally with the pervasive sedentariness of modern life.

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A case can be made that habitual physical activity has a biological basis with a central control, and that physical inactivity disturbs normal function and contributes to chronic energy imbalance Rowland, 1998. This is not a plea to return to the physical toil that our ancestors endured. Rather, it is a reminder that that our bodies have an inherent need to be exercised. If our overall health and functioning are to be optimized, we need to be physically active the journey of the blood physical education essay a regular basis.

The link between physical activity and health In recent years the public health benefits of reducing sedentary lifestyles and promoting physical activity have become increasingly apparent. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General http: Results from laboratory studies, clinical trials and epidemiological investigations provide convincing evidence that increasing one's level of physical activity—especially for those who are sedentary—has multiple beneficial health effects.

These include reducing the risk of prematurely dying from coronary heart disease CHDtype 2 diabetes and colon cancer. Endurance-type exercise can improve mental health, and reduce the risk of developing obesity and osteoporosis. Regular physical activity also preserves functional independence in older adults. When all research is considered collectively, a dose—response relationship between activity levels and disease prevention is clearly evident US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996.

As illustrated in Figure 1investigators from numerous recent epidemiological studies have reported this relationship in men and in women, and in many countries. These data are for all-cause mortality. Much of the inverse relation between activity amount and all-cause mortality is due to the inverse relationship between activity amount and cardiovascular diseases CVD.

  • Schools and communities have the potential to improve the health of young people by providing instruction, programs and services that promote enjoyable, lifelong physical activity;
  • There have been concerted efforts in Australia to activate the whole population;
  • The research agenda for the future includes development of both basic and applied research on physical activity, and the integration of theory across social, behavioral and biomedical disciplines;
  • For example, based on Social Cognitive Theory, strategies to enhance self-efficacy one's confidence to be physically active in variable settings , an intra-personal mediator, are expected to produce increases in physical activity.

However, some studies have demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between activity level and cancer mortality and non-CVD mortality. The particular studies included in Figure 1 were selected based on being representative of those with the strongest research design, methodology and analysis. How much exercise is enough? What is an appropriate dose of physical activity type, duration, intensity, frequency to reduce disease risk and enhance well-being?

Although specific recommendations may vary with age and health status, a consensus guideline is that every adult should accumulate 30 min or more of moderate-intensity endurance-type physical activity over the course of most days of the week Pate et al. For example, a sedentary office worker could meet this standard by briskly walking 2 miles at lunchtime every day of the workweek.

Additional health and functional benefits can be achieved by more time in moderate-intensity activity or by substituting more vigorous aerobic activity such as jogging. Additionally, it is recommended that strength-developing activities for the major muscle groups such as resistance training or calisthenics and flexibility training be performed at least twice a week Pate et al.

Describe The Journey Of A Red Blood Cell Around The Body Essay text preview

The need to understand physical activity as a health behavior Like most human behaviors, physical activity is a complex behavior. Physical activity in our daily lives is determined by a web of factors that has become more intricate over the past century as advances in science and technology continually change our world. In attempting to understand physical activity as a health-enhancing behavior, it is useful to adopt an ecological perspective Sallis and Owen, 1997.

This holistic approach attempts to encompass all possible determinants of physical activity behavior for free-living individuals. It provides the larger context within which different models and theories can be developed and tested.

  • Intervention strategies are based on altering key mediators of physical activity;
  • It provides the larger context within which different models and theories can be developed and tested;
  • Social marketing offers a sophisticated, research-based process for achieving defined behavioral objectives in identified priority populations, with benefits to both individuals and society;
  • References American College of Sports Medicine.

In recent years there has been an increased awareness of the need for theory-driven research on the process of health behavior change.

A number of behavior change theories have been applied to the promotion of physical activity with promising results. To illustrate the different types of theories, four examples, i.

Social Cognitive Theory Bandura, 1977one of the most widely adopted theories applied to health promotion, is based on the principle of reciprocal determinism which refers to the way behavior and environment continuously interact and influence each other. Social Cognitive Theory holds that two basic cognitions are vital for the prediction of a behavior change.

The first cognition, outcome expectancy, is defined as a person's estimate that a given behavior will lead to certain outcomes e. The second basic cognition is self-efficacy, the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce an outcome e.

Behavior Modification Skinner, 1953 is similar in many respects to approaches applied from Social Cognitive Theory. A central tenet of Behavior Modification is that altering consequences is the most powerful method for changing behavior. Reinforcers rewards such as money, certificates, socializing increase behavior, where as punishers such as discomfort during exercise, embarrassment due to poor performance, fear of injury reduce the probability of repeating the behavior. Interventions to increase physical activity should be designed with multiple reinforcers that are strong and temporally close to the physical activity behavior, whereas punishers should be minimized or eliminated.

The Transtheoretical Model Prochaska and Marcus, 1994popularly referred to as the Stages of Change Model, describes five different stages of motivational readiness which appear to be common to most behavior change processes i.

The journey of the blood physical education essay major contribution of this model is that people in different stages are shown to use different processes to move to the next stage. Thus, to move people forward toward the desired behavior, it becomes important to identify their current stage and then use strategies known to be effective for that specific stage. Social Marketing Theory Kotler and Zaltman, 1971 involves the application of commercial marketing techniques to the analysis, planning, implementation and assessment of programs designed to improve voluntary health behaviors among target audiences.

Social marketing has supported creative experimentation with different intervention methods such as mass communication, sponsorship of events and competitions. It is less a theory in the formal sense than a planning model for health promotion. Social marketing offers a sophisticated, research-based process for achieving defined behavioral objectives in identified priority populations, with benefits to both individuals and society.

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Depending on multiple factors such as the level of intervention i. Selection should be based on which has the better fit with the problem under study. Comprehensive reviews and critiques on the application of these and other behavior change theories to increase physical activity levels in sedentary persons have been recently published in a theme issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine Blair and Morrow, 1998.

In the following sections, recent campaigns in three countries, i. South Africa, Australia and the US, are briefly highlighted to share the variety of initiatives being used to promote physical activity to targeted populations.

Many countries in Europe, South America and elsewhere are pursuing related projects. The examples that follow reflect the transition toward theory-based research.

Over the next decade, experimental trials and systematic evaluations of these and similar projects will provide a much needed body of evidence. Findings from such investigations will allow us to determine the degree to which theory-driven interventions can effect long-term change in individual behavior or communities beyond, or perhaps despite, the prevailing trend of increasing sedentariness.

Seventy-five percent of South Africans are literate. While infectious diseases remain endemic in South Africa, morbidity from chronic diseases is increasing along with the prevalence of contributing risk factors such as smoking, sedentary living and a change from a more traditional to a Westernized diet. For example, in 1990, 7.

The cardiovascular system is made up of 3 parts. The heart, Blood vessels and blood.

The majority of South Africans have at least one modifiable risk factor for chronic disease Steyn et al. Physical activity and health promotion initiatives in South Africa have been fragmented, with little central government coordination.

This may be attributed in part to: The South African government has recently begun initiatives promoting physical activity in certain target populations. In April 1999, the first set of national guidelines incorporating physical activity was released by the Department of Health, targeting older adults, and there are several national campaigns aimed at increasing awareness regarding physical activity and health, such as National Wellness Day.

However, these initiatives lack a broad-based infrastructure for implementation, as well as financial support and community awareness for sustainability. Furthermore, the effectiveness of these social marketing campaigns for increasing awareness regarding physical activity on a community level or for increasing the adoption of physical activity on an individual level has not been measured.

The impetus for increasing recognition and adoption of physical activity for health promotion has occurred largely through non-governmental groups—private, academic and sports organizations.

  • When the ventricles finish contracting, the aortic and pulmonary valves close to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles;
  • Results from laboratory studies, clinical trials and epidemiological investigations provide convincing evidence that increasing one's level of physical activity—especially for those who are sedentary—has multiple beneficial health effects;
  • Physical activity and health promotion initiatives in South Africa have been fragmented, with little central government coordination.

In 1997, a regional initiative for health promotion was created, the Community Health Intervention Programs, as a joint venture between a privately funded, non-profit organization the Sports Science Institute of South Africa and a national insurance company The Old Mutual.

This initiative involves a range of community bodies from civic associations, church groups, seniors clubs and children's homes to universities and teaching colleges.

The aim is to enable previously disadvantaged communities to begin health promotion projects using physical activity intervention as the vehicle. Separate programs target children, adults and older adults. Community consultation precedes implementation and community leaders are trained by sport scientists, allied health professionals and physical education specialists. Co-implementation takes place for 3 months, after which time the program staff withdraw, and ownership of programs is transferred to the community and monitored on an ongoing basis.

The ultimate goal of this regional initiative is to implement a working model of broader participation in physical activity and sport, nationwide. The success of this model is dependent on a sustainable community infrastructure. Moreover, this program is only implemented the journey of the blood physical education essay communities that have specifically requested to be considered.

The face-to-face intervention and the training of community leaders may improve the adoption of physical activity by improving self-efficacy of participants. Early results in older adults have demonstrated a significant increase in exercise-related physical activity, improved functional capacity and lowered systolic blood pressure. A health-promoting school is one in which all members work with available resources to promote the well-being of the entire school community.

The health-promoting school model is one of the few models that demonstrates inter-sectoral collaboration and the integration of environmental policy, e. The promotion of physical activity is to be one of the primary interventions through which health promotion takes place. There have been concerted efforts in Australia to activate the whole population. In the early 1990s, the National Heart Foundation conducted large-scale campaigns based on the Social Marketing Theory.

Campaigns included mass media, community events and focused training of health professionals. A systematic evaluation demonstrated significant increases in campaign message awareness and walking for exercise in older and less educated subgroups Owen et al.

Education, transportation, urban planning and local government have important roles in the Australian national strategy. Much of the energy and leadership behind the Australian initiatives is being stimulated by the Sydney 2000 Olympics.