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The importance of the crop rice biology essay

  • Rice also provides minerals, vitamins, and fiber, although all constituents except carbohydrates are reduced by milling;
  • Increased food production can be achieved by several methods for e;
  • In Asia, losses run up to 11.

Read this essay to learn about Plant Breeding. After reading this essay you will learn about: Definition of Plant Breeding 2. Nature of Plant Breeding 3. Aims and Objectives of Plant Breeding 4. Plant Breading In India 6. Distinguished Achievements of Plant Breeding 7.

Future Prospect of Plant Breeding. Definition of Plant Breeding: Man is almost absolutely dependent on plants for food. The things we eat virtually without exception are either plant materials or derived directly from plants.

With the rapidly increasing population in the world the food supply is already grossly inadequate. The solution of the problem lies in efforts to check the population growth and to increase food production.

Increased food production can be achieved by several methods for e. Plant breeding is concerned with developing varieties superior to existing ones. It can be defined as a science, an art and a technology which deals with genetic improvement of crop plants in relation to their economic use for mankind. Frankel 1968 defined plant breeding as the genetic adjustment of p ant to the Social, cultural, economic and technological aspects of the environment.

Rice as a crop

Plant breeding is also called as crop improvement. A person changing and improving the heredity of plants is known as plant breeder. Plant breeding is the art and science of changing and improving the heredity of plants. In earlier days the extent of plant breeding as an art and as a science was much disputed Early Ln was a nomad and dependent for his food on the forest products. As civilization progressed he learned to cultivate more plants and selected the seeds from healthier plants for sowing the next year.

His method of selection was designed without an understanding of the principal of inheritance. Therefore, plant breeding then was largely an art this selection is the earliest method of plant breeding and is practiced on a large scale, even today. The modern plant breeding is, therefore, considered as science based upon a thorough understanding and use of genetic principles. Aims and Objectives of Plant Breeding: Plants are also the original source of the food supplied by animal products.

Population is increasing very rapidly and the food supply is inadequate. In India, the tenth plan food grains target was 230 million tonnes in 2006-2007.

The production was 212. Trend of rice and wheat production was less than population growth by the end of the ninth plan.

Section Topics

Higher yields of food plants contribute to a more abundant food supply, a more profitable agriculture, and a lower cost of food products for the consumer. So, the primary objective of the plant breeding is to produce new crop varieties superior to existing types in all characters.

  • Crop plants are attacked by various diseases and insects resulting in considerable yield loss;
  • Aims and Objectives of Plant Breeding:

However, there are some objectives which are common in majority of field crops. The ultimate aim of the plant breeder is to improve the yield of crop plants. It may be of grain yield, fodder field, fibre yield, tuber yield, cane yield or oil yield depending upon the crop species. It can be achieved by developing more efficient genotypes e.

Quality of products determines its price and suitability for various uses. Quality differs from crop to crop. Disease and insect resistance: Crop plants are attacked by various diseases and insects resulting in considerable yield loss. Development of resistant varieties can minimize such losses. Crop plants also suffer from abiotic factors such as drought, soil salinity, cold and frost etc. The objective of the plant breeder should be to develop resistant varieties for such environmental conditions.

Essay on Plant Breeding

Development of photosensitive and thermo-sensitive varieties permits their cultivation in new areas. Rice is now cultivated in Punjab while wheat is a major rabi crop in West Bengal. Early maturity of crop reduces management period, insecticide the importance of the crop rice biology essay and overall production cost.

It also permits double cropping system. Development of wheat varieties suitable for late planting has permitted rice-wheat rotation. It refers to maturity of a crop species at a time. It is highly desirable in crops like mung Vigna radiate where several pickings are necessary. The shattering of pods is a serious problem in a crop like mung. Hence, resistance to shattering is an important objective to plant breeders.

In arboreum cotton shedding of kapas after ball bursting is a serious problem. Locule retentive varieties have to be developed in this species of cotton. In some crops such as green gram, black gram, barley and pea, seeds germinate in the standing crop before harvesting if rains received. A period of dormancy in such cases would check the loss due to germination. In some other cases, however, it may desirable to remove dormancy. In crops like cotton, pigeon pea and mung, development of varieties with determinate growth is desirable.

One of the important objectives of plant breeding is to modify agronomic characters such as plant height, tillering habit branching, erect or tralg habit, growth habit etc. Usefulness of these traits also differ from crop to crop Dwarfness in crop plants is generally associated with lodging resistance and fertilizer responsiveness e.

Tallness, high tillering and profuse branching are desirable characters in forage crops. It is another important objective. To develop varieties for new seasons will solve the food problem, for example mung is now grown as a summer crop in addition to main kharif crop.

Removal of toxic compounds: Some crops have toxic substances.

The importance of rice

So it is essential to develop varieties free from toxic substances to make them safe for human consumption for e. Erucic acid from Brassica which is harmful for human health. Gossypol from seed of cotton to make them fit for human consumption.

Brief History of Plant Breeding: In 700 B C date palm was artificially pollinated by Assyrians and Babylonians. The first artificial interspecific plant hybrid was made by Thomas Fairchild in 1717. It is obtained by crossing between sweet will am and carnation species of Dianthus. Dianthus barbatus x D. Thomas Andrew Knight English, 1800 first used the artificial hybridization to produce many new kinds of fruits and garden crops Mendel Austria, 1856-1864 performed hybridization experiments on pea plant.

Johanssen Danish, 1903 developed the concept of pure line. He also developed concept of parallel series of variation or law of homologous series of variation.

Hull 1945 coined the term recurrent selection and over-dominance working with maze. Borlaug 1953 first outlined the method of developing multiline in wheat. In 1998, he identified traitor gene, which responds to specific band of fertilizers and insecticides. Plant Breading In India: In India, the science of plant breeding started in the early 1900.

  • In the absence of IPR and patenting, germplasm moved unrestrictedly and made contributions globally Chaudhary, 1996 , which can no longer be tolerated;
  • The development of more location specific technologies for crop management, Integrated Pest Management, Integrated Nutrient Management, technology transfer to further reduce the yield gap, and manpower development in appropriate areas would have to be handled by NARS;
  • The tariff reduction by USA and EU may lead to additional exports of specialty rice and global trade may increase in general;
  • The movement from subsistence to market-oriented rainfed production may bring in additional changes Pingali et al;
  • Ten major bacterial diseases have been identified in rice Ou, 1985;
  • The latter approach is a long-term strategy, but it would have enormous environmental benefits while helping resource-poor farmers.

The earlier work was done by British scientists like Barber in sugarcane and Howards in wheat. Later, this institute has shifted to New Delhi in 1936. In 1946, the name of this institute is changed to its present one, i.

In 1929, the Imperial council of Agriculture Research was established. In 1960, the first agricultural university was established at Pantnagar, Nainital, U.

Subsequently such agricultural universities were established in other states of the country. Some important Indian plant breeders are: Pioneer Indian plant breeder famous for sugarcane improvement.

He transferred thick stem and high sugar contents from tropical noble cane to North Indian canes. This process is called as nebulization of sugarcane. Wheat breeder, famous for C-591 variety of wheat, which made Punjab as granary of India. Famous wheat breeder, who produced superior disease resistant N. Famous rice breeder of international fame.