Custom papers academic service


Neurotransmitters on physical and mental behavior essay

Saul McLeodpublished 2008, updated 2014 The medical model of mental illness treats mental disorders in the same way as neurotransmitters on physical and mental behavior essay broken arm, i. This model has been adopted by psychiatrists rather than psychologists.

Assumptions The biological approach to psychopathology believes that disorders have an organic or physical cause.

The focus of this approach is on genetics, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy etc. The approach argues that mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of the brain.

Behaviors such as hallucinations are 'symptoms' of mental illness as are suicidal ideas or extreme fears such as phobias about snakes and so on. Different illnesses can be identified as 'syndromes', clusters of symptoms that go together and are caused by the illness. These symptoms lead the psychiatrist to make a 'diagnosis' for example 'this patient is suffering from a severe psychosis, he is suffering from the medical condition we call schizophrenia'.

What is happening here? The doctor makes a judgement of the patient's behavior, usually in a clinical interview after a relative or general practitioner has asked for an assessment. The doctor will judge that the 'patient' is exhibiting abnormal behavior by asking questions and observing the patient. Diagnostic Criteria In psychiatry the psychiatrist must be able to validly and reliably diagnose different mental illnesses.

The first systematic attempt to do this was by Emil Kraepelin who published the first recognized textbook on psychiatry in 1883. Kraepelin claimed that certain groups of symptoms occur together sufficiently frequently for them to be called a disease. He regarded each mental illness as a distinct type and set out to describe its origins, symptoms, course and outcomes. The two most important are: This is the classification system used by the American Psychiatric Association. The first version DSM 1 was published in 1952.

The latest version is DSM V published in 2013. This is published by The World Health Organisation.

  1. Different drugs can affect the brain in different ways either by intensifying or dulling transmissions. Bipolar disorder heather mclean hca neurotransmitters the person can do is talk to a doctor that can diagnose and give a physical examination, and mental.
  2. Studies in older teenagers tend to support the benefits of physical activity in treating adolescent depression. Different illnesses can be identified as 'syndromes', clusters of symptoms that go together and are caused by the illness.
  3. Rosenhan concluded that no psychiatrist can easily diagnose the sane from insane.
  4. Behaviors such as hallucinations are 'symptoms' of mental illness as are suicidal ideas or extreme fears such as phobias about snakes and so on.
  5. The approach argues that mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of the brain. This programme tells the story of three key figures in the strange history of lobotomy - and for the first time explores the popularity of lobotomy in the UK in detail.

Mental disorders were included for the first time in 1948 ICD 6. The current version is ICD 10 published in 1992. Clinical interview Careful observation of behavior, mood states, etc. Medical records Psychometric tests On the basis of the diagnosis, the psychiatrist will prescribe treatment such as drugs, psychosurgery or electroconvulsive therapy.

However, since the 1970s psychiatrists have predominantly treated mental illnesses using drugs. However, studies have shown that diagnosis is not a reliable tool. Rosenhan 1973 conducted an experiment where the aim was to see whether psychiatrists could reliably distinguish between people who were mentally ill and those who were not.

The Medical Model

The study consists of two conditions from which in one the hospital were informed that patients will be coming that are not actually mentally ill when in fact no patients were sent at all. In this condition the psychiatrists only diagnosed 41 out of 193 patients as being mentally ill when in reality all patients were mentally ill.

In the other conditions, 8 people were told to report at the hospital that they hear noises in their head. As soon as they were administrated, they behaved normally.

The doctors in this condition still classified these patients as insane, with a case of dormant schizophrenia. Rosenhan concluded that no neurotransmitters on physical and mental behavior essay can easily diagnose the sane from insane. Though Rosenhan delivered a very accurate report on diagnoses of patients, Rosenhan was criticised for deceiving the hospital for claiming that sane patients were being sent over, though none were actually sent.

Schizophrenia The main biological explanations of schizophrenia are as follows: Genetics — there is considerable evidence of a genetic predisposition to develop schizophrenia.

Biochemistry — the dopamine hypothesis argues that elevated levels of dopamine are related to symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuroanatomy — differences in brain structure abnormalities in the frontal and pre-frontal cortex, enlarged ventricles have been identified in people with schizophrenia. Depression The main biological explanations of depression are as follows: Genetic — there is considerable evidence that the predisposition to develop depression is inherited.

Amine hypothesis — low levels of mono amines predominantly noradrenaline and serotonin.

Neurotransmitters Essay

Neuroanatomy — damage to amine pathways in post-stroke patients. Neuroendocrine hormonal factors — the importance of stress hormones e. Genetic — there is some evidence of a tendency to inherit OCD, with a gene Sapap3 recently identified.

Biochemistry — serotonin deficiency has been implicated. Neuroanatomy — dysfunctions of the orbital frontal cortex OFC over-activity in basal ganglia and caudate-nucleus thalamus have been proposed.

Diagnostic Criteria

Evolutionary — adaptive advantages of hoarding, grooming, etc. Drug Treatment The film one flew over the cuckoos nest demonstrates the way in which drugs are handed out like smarties merely to keep the patients subdued. Antipsychotic drugs can be used to treat schizophrenia by blocking d2 dopamine receptors. There are different generations of antipsychotics: Typical antipsychotics — eg chlorpromazine, block d2 receptors in several brain areas.

Assumptions

Less typical antipsychotics — eg pimozide, often used as a last resort when other drugs have failed. Atypical antipsychotics — eg risperidone. Some atypicals also block serotonin receptors. Effectiveness Anti psychotics have long been established as a relatively cheap, effective treatment, which rapidly reduce symptoms and enable many people to live relatively normal lives Van Putten, 1981. Relapse is likely when drugs are discontinued. Drug treatment is usually superior to no treatment.

Appropriateness Drugs do not neurotransmitters on physical and mental behavior essay with the cause of the problem, they only reduce the symptoms. Anti psychotics produce a range of side effects including motor tremors and weight gain. These lead a proportion of patients to discontinue treatment. Patients often welcome drug therapy, as it is quicker, easier and less threatening than talk therapy.

Some drugs cause dependency. Ethical issues including informed consent, and the dehumanizing effects of some treatments. The idea was extrapolated to humans as a treatment for schizophrenia on the theoretical basis that nobody can have schizophrenia and epilepsy together, so if epilepsy is induced by electric shock the schizophrenic symptoms will be forced into submission!

ECT was used historically but was largely abandoned as a treatment for schizophrenia after the discovery of the antipsychotic drugs in the 1950s but has recently been re-introduced in the USA. However, it is sometimes used as a last resort for treating severe depression. ECT can be either unilateral electrode on one temple or bilateral electrodes on both temples. The procedure for administering ECT involves the patient receiving a short acting anaesthetic and muscle relaxant before the shock is administered.

Oxygen is also administered. Small amount of current about 0. The resulting seizure lasts for about a minute.

  1. Mental disorders were included for the first time in 1948 ICD 6. Neurotransmitters are potent chemicals that adjust various physical and responsive processes such as psychological performance, emotional conditions and agony reaction.
  2. This is the classification system used by the American Psychiatric Association.
  3. Dysthymia is defined as a Psychology - Brain and Research 963 words - 4 pages this video, the hypothesis that I would like to test is that violence in the home causes a violent predisposition in children. In turn, this causes sodium transport molecules in the membrane of the cell to open.

ECT is usually given three times a week for up to 5 weeks. ECT should only be used when all else fails!

Neurotransmitters And Behaviour Essay

Many argue that this is sufficient justification for its use, especially if it prevents suicide. ECT is generally used in severely depressed patients for whom psychotherapy and medication have proven to be ineffective. It can also be used for those who suffer from schizophrenia and manic depression.

However, Sackheim et al. There are many critics of this extreme form of treatment, especially of its uncontrolled and unwarranted use in many large, under staffed mental institutions where it may be used simply to make patients docile and manageable or as a punishment Breggin 1979. ECT side effects include impaired language and memory as well as loss of self esteem due to not being able to remember important personal facts or perform routine tasks.

ECT is a controversial treatment, not least because the people who use it are still unsure of how it works - a comparison has been drawn with kicking the side of the television set to make it work. There are three theories as to how ECT may work: The shock literally shocks the person out of their illness as it is regarded as a punishment for the inappropriate behavior.

Biochemical changes take place in the brain following the shocks which stimulate particular neurotransmitters. The associated memory loss following shock allows the person to start afresh. They literally forget they were depressed or suffering from schizophrenia.

Psychosurgery As a last result when drugs and ECT have apparently failed psychosurgery is an option. This basically involves either cutting out brain nerve fibres or burning parts of neurotransmitters on physical and mental behavior essay nerves that are thought to be involved in the disorder when the patient is conscious. The most common form of psychosurgery is a prefrontal lobotomy. As a consolation he received the Nobel prize for his contribution to science in 1949. Surgery is used only as a last resort, where the patient has failed to respond to other forms of treatment and their disorder is very severe.

This is because all surgery is risky and the effects of neurosurgery can be unpredictable. Also, there may be no benefit to the patient and the effects are irreversible. There are four major types of lobotomy: This programme tells the story of three key figures in the strange history of lobotomy - and for the first time explores the popularity of lobotomy in the UK in detail. Evaluation of The Medical Model Strengths: It has proved to be effective in controlling serious mental illness like schizophrenia allowing patients who would otherwise have to remain in hospital to live at home.

Drugs may not 'cure' the condition, but simply act as a chemical straitjacket. For this reason, many mental disorders are called 'functional'. The test case is schizophrenia but even here genetic or neurochemical explanations are inconclusive.