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Effectiveness of national and international efforts essay

Duty bearers[ edit ] Article 3 provides that "States have the primary responsibility for the creation of national and international conditions favourable to the realization of the right to development" and this encompasses three main levels 1 States acting collectively in global and regional partnerships; 2 States acting individually as they adopt and implement policies that affect persons not strictly within their jurisdiction and 3 States acting individually as they formulate national development policies and programmes affecting persons within their jurisdiction.

Article 6 importantly provides "States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary measures for the realization of the right to development, echoing Article 2. Furthermore, the Maastricht Guidelines [20] on violations of economic, social and cultural rights provides that a state is in violation of the Covenant if it fails to allocate the maximum of its available resources to realizing human rights.

The purpose of the working group was to monitor and review the progress of the Independent Expert and report back to the Commission. The Independent Expert presented to the working group at each of its sessions a study on the current state of progress in the implementation of the right to development.

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers[ edit ] Main article: The rationale of the process was to promote national and local 'ownership' of macroeconomic policies ensuring that they were sufficiently adapted to relieving poverty in the poorest countries.

The process represents an embrace of the values of participation and transparency in the formulation of macroeconomic policy, and thus has the potential to shape the content of these policies in order to meet the needs of the poor. PRSP's are prepared by member countries in a participatory process with domestic stakeholders and development partners like the World Bank or International Monetary Fund.

These are updated every three years with progress reports describing the country's macroeconomic, structural effectiveness of national and international efforts essay social policies and programs over a three-year or longer period to promote growth and reduce poverty. Interim PRSPs I-PRSPs summarize the current knowledge and analysis of a country's poverty situation, describe the existing poverty reduction strategy, and lay out the process for producing a fully developed PRSP in a participatory fashion.

The introduction of PRSPs was a recognition by the IMF and the World Bank of the importance of country ownership of reform programs as well as the need for a greater focus on poverty reduction.

  1. Humanitarian aid and development assistance seeks to ease the impact that violent conflict has on civilians.
  2. Issues of mistrust and betrayal must be addressed, and the rule of law must be restored.
  3. The World Conference on Human Rights the Vienna Declaration confirmed that extreme poverty and social exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and urgent steps are necessary to achieve better knowledge of extreme poverty and its causes. Aid can also assist those who have been displaced and support rehabilitation work.
  4. The introduction of PRSPs was a recognition by the IMF and the World Bank of the importance of country ownership of reform programs as well as the need for a greater focus on poverty reduction.
  5. Joseph Stiglitz in Making Globalization Work refers to a gap between economic and political globalization and that a growth oriented economic analysis disregarding the impact of income on the realization of rights such as health or education and focusing instead on making choices in a world of limited resources.

Five core principles underlie the approach. Poverty reduction strategies should be 1 country-driven, promoting national ownership of strategies through broad-based participation of civil society; 2 result-oriented and focused on outcomes that will benefit the poor; 3 comprehensive in recognizing the multidimensional nature of poverty; 4 partnership-oriented, involving coordinated participation of development partners government, domestic stakeholders, and external donors ; and 5 based on a long-term perspective for poverty reduction.

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In 2001 The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights commissioned the 2001 guidelines for the integration of human rights into poverty reduction Strategies which were further developed in the 2005 guidelines [26] The Commissioner in a concept note also states that the human rights framework is "a useful tool strengthening the accountability and equity dimensions of the Poverty Reductions Strategies.

The IMF contributes to the goals through advice, technical assistance, lending to countries and mobilizing donor support. The Millennium Declaration considers six fundamental values necessary for international relations 1 freedom to raise children in dignity, freedom from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression and injustice, including democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people. Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, through sustainable development and unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of the future welfare of our descendants and effectiveness of national and international efforts essay shared responsibility, responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to international peace and security, must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally.

Human rights have played a limited role in influencing MDG planning, though there are strong similarities between them and the content of the MDGs which resemble many economic and social rights.

MDGs provide benchmarks for economic and social rights, while human rights strategies offer enhanced legitimacy, equity and sustainability to the MDG policies. The Millennium Declaration substantially refers to human rights and leaders have committed themselves to respecting recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development. Economic, social and cultural rights, the rights of women, migrant, minorities, and participation are all emphasized in the declaration yet the pursuit of the MDGs has been in isolation from it.

MDG targets are not sufficiently focused on inequalities within a country and human rights instruments require a minimum core level of economic, social and cultural rights to be immediately realized for all and for all discrimination in the exercise of rights to be eliminated.

Inequalities within countries lead to violent conflict and countries focus on the relatively well-off among the poor in order to reach a particular MDG target. A range of activities are promoted as a means of achieving the MDGs such as tailoring the MDGs to the regional, national and local context and undertaking national needs assessments and monitoring progress through yearly MDG reports.

A specific critique of MDGs is that they place emphasis on the mobilization of financial resources and technical solutions, but less on transforming power relations that are partially responsible for levels of poverty.

The World Bank [33] has observed that in many situations the real barriers to progress on the MDGs are social and political. The realization of human rights therefore may be a precondition to fulfilling development goals Poverty[ edit ] The present global institutional order is foreseeably associated with avoidable severe poverty and its impositions may constitute an ongoing human rights violation.

Amartya Sen argues that individual physical characteristics, environmental and social conditions as well as behavioural expectations all play a role. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights defines poverty as "human conditions characterised by chronic deprivation of resources capabilities, choices, security and power necessary for the enjoyment of an adequate standard of living" Jeffrey Sachs place poverty in an historical trajectory with the ending of slavery, colonialism, segregation and apartheid but do not link these human rights movements to current causes of poverty elimination.

Human rights and development

Policy economists discuss minimum standards, transparency, and participation unrelated to the human rights framework where poverty is seen to increases social wastage distorting economic and service delivery outcomes. Joseph Stiglitz in Making Globalization Work refers to a gap between economic and political globalization and that a growth oriented economic analysis disregarding the impact of income on the realization of rights such as health or education and focusing instead on making choices in a world of limited resources.

The G-20 2005 Statement on Global Development Issues does not mention human rights or human development and good governance is referred to only in relation to economic policy.

In the 2009 the Global Plan for Recovery and Reform [36] also fails to mention human rights or human development.

The ingrained philosophy is a world economy based on market principles and effective regulation. A strand of economics embraces human rights language such as the International Development Ethics Association [37] who apply a normative approach to development theories. Human rights under these development perspectives revolve around the concept of freedom with expanding choice. The World Conference on Human Rights the Vienna Declaration confirmed that extreme poverty and social exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and urgent steps are necessary to achieve better knowledge of extreme poverty and its causes.

Economic growth is regarded as the principal mechanism to achieve this goal while a human rights approach requires a focus on poor growth and a consideration of groups seeking development paths other than the conventional free market, export-driven model. South-eastern Asia is the first developing region to reach the hunger reduction target ahead of 2015. Undernourished people in the total population of the region decreased from 29.

However, globally the slowing of growth brings continual job losses. Unemployment has increased by 28 million since 2007, and an estimated 39 million people have dropped out of the labour market, leaving 67 million people without jobs as a result of the global financial crisis.

Families who send their girls to school are eligible to receive an annual ration of wheat and vegetable oil. Since 2010 the programme has reached almost 200,000 girls. Whilst in India the UNDP is supporting the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Programpromoting laws passed in 2005 effectiveness of national and international efforts essay guarantee the right to a minimum of 100 days of paid work a year for landless labourers and marginal farmers.

The scheme now provides 50 days work a year to around 50 million households where almost half of the beneficiaries are women. Education[ edit ] Varun Gauri argues that economic and social rights, such as the right to health care or education, may be understood not as legal instruments for individuals, but as duties for governments and international agencies such that everyone bears some responsibility for their fulfillment.

Economists accept that the realization of high standards of health and education are conducive to economic growth. The human rights approach regards transparency and empowerment as ends in themselves, while an economic approach sees them as instrumental to a welfare outcome.

The target is to ensure that by 2015, children everywhere will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling [44] comparable to the Right to education, the goal however ignores the requirement of free primary education as conceived by the human right. Even after 4 years of primary schooling, as many as 250 million children cannot read and write undermining the basis for all future learning.

Going to school is not enough and improving actual effectiveness of national and international efforts essay is critical. Poverty, gender and residential location are key factors keeping children out of school.

Children from the poorest households are three times more likely to be out of school than children from the richest households. Positive developments have occurred in Afghanistan and Bangladesh where the Let Us Learn initiative has overcome barriers to education. Gender equality[ edit ] The third MDG is to promote gender equality and empower women.

  1. Civil and political rights like the rights to vote, to freedom of expression and to freedom of association are crucial if excluded groups are to ensure that Governments focus on the MDGs with a human rights basis.
  2. Many believe that the protection of human rights "is essential to the sustainable achievement of the three agreed global priorities of peace , development and democracy. Consequently, policies to promote and protect human rights must be culturally adapted to avoid distrust and perceptions of intrusion into internal affairs.
  3. A United Nations Priority. Legal conceptions of property, treat property not as a mere resource but as a set of relations between individuals and groups.
  4. Undernourished people in the total population of the region decreased from 29. People suffer from their own mistakes.
  5. As violent conflict begins to subside, peacekeeping strategies to physically separate disputants and prevent further violence are crucial.

Eliminating gender inequality is supported by international human rights instruments, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The goal sets women's empowerment as the objective but the related target is narrowly concerned with education. Gender gaps in access to education have narrowed but inequalities remain in all levels of education, girls face barriers to schooling, particularly in Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia.

Access effectiveness of national and international efforts essay secondary and university education remains unequal with disparities at universities the most extreme. In Southern Asia, 77 girls per 100 boys are enrolled in tertiary education while in sub-Saharan Africa the gender gap in enrolment has widened from 66 girls per 100 boys in 2000 to 61 girls per 100 boys in 2011.

Poverty is the main cause of unequal access to education with women and girls in many parts of the world forced to spend many hours fetching water and girls often do not attend school because of a lack of adequate sanitation facilities.

Child marriage and violence against girls are also significant barriers to education. Women are often relegated to vulnerable forms of employment, with little or no financial security or social benefits. Regarding women's rights and land empowerment, Kerry Rittich [47] notes that programmes which promote the formal real property rights of women, in place of customary laws or other informal mechanisms, have the potential to both improve and retard women's access to land.

The programmes promoting property rights tend to go together with measures to formalize, commodify, and individualize landholdings, and that these three processes often intensify the dispossession of women who may have had access to land under informal arrangements or customary law. The promotion of property rights from an economic perspective may well undermine the social rights of women in developing countries.

Legal conceptions of property, treat property not as a mere resource but as a set of relations between individuals and groups. This approach may highlight otherwise unforeseen distributive consequences for women, moving from an informal property regime to a formalized and individualized one. Mason and Carlsson [48] note that, unless gender inequality in land holding is taken into account when implementing land tenure reforms, improved land tenure security may diminish women's land holdings.

A variety of factors can lead to this result, including discriminatory inheritance laws, the application of an androcentric definition of 'the head of household', and inequalities in women's capacity to participate in the market for land. Costa Rica effectiveness of national and international efforts essay Colombia land reforms were undertaken in a way that improved women's ownership of land. Women who own the land they work have greater incentives to raise their labour productivity, and women who earn more income are more likely than men to invest in the household and in their children's education and nutrition stressing the importance of applying a human rights lens such that norms of non-discrimination and equal property rights are required when implementing economic reforms.

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Children's rights The fourth MDG is to reduce child mortality. A human rights approach emphasizes the State's obligations regarding the availability of functioning health systems effectiveness of national and international efforts essay making sure that all groups can effectively access them by addressing obstacles like discrimination. The target here is the reduction of two-thirds of the mortality rate of children under five by 2015 [49] comparable to the Right to life. Around 17,000 fewer children are dying each day, yet 6.

In sub-Saharan Africa, one in ten children dies before the age five. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia accounted for 5. The first month, particularly the first 24 hours, are the most dangerous in a child's life. Over the past two decades in Bangladesh UNICEF has supported local efforts training community health-care workers leading to a decline in maternal and child mortality.

Infant mortality declined from 100 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 33 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2012. The development goal is related to Child Labour. Rights advocates regard child labour as a violation to numerous rights of a child such that it must be eradicated to ensure children's human rights are ends themselves while development economics views child labour as an inter-generational loss of potential income.

Children suffer diminished human capital where reductions in health and education affect their future productivity.

Betcherman [50] demonstrates the important insights that economic analysis can provide in understanding how best to reduce child labour. Factors contributing to child labour can be seen in terms of incentives that encourage child work, constraints that compel children to work, and effectiveness of national and international efforts essay that may not be made in the best interests of the children.

Other factors must also be considered, direct books, transport and indirect poor quality, loss of household labour costs of education leading parents to regard education as not providing sufficient immediate returns to the household or child. Elizabeth GibbonsFriedrich Huebler[51] and Edilberto Loaiza consider how, at the level of statistical analysis, the application of the human rights principle of non-discrimination can affect our understanding of child labour. Existing methods of calculating the extent of child labour under report the degree of work done by girls, because the measures exclude household chores.

By failing to consider 'female work' within the definition of child labour, the impact of child work on the educational and health attainment of girls is made invisible. Gibbons, Huebler, and Loaiza also investigate some factors affecting school attendance; labour and household poverty are generally constraints on attendance but a mother's educational attainment correlates positively with school attendance, revealing the inter-generational payoff from investments in girls' education.

Household wealth and the level of education of the primary caretaker also have a significant effect on educational attainment In India the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act [52] has led to the inclusion of a justiciable right to education in relation to children between the ages of 6 and 14 and provides an impetus to government to address critical problems in the provision of education.

The idea of education as a 'fundamental right' focuses local political action and agitation among oppressed communities, who rely on the new constitutional provision as a way of pressing demands on local and regional government. Maternal health[ edit ] The fifth MDG is to improve maternal health. The target is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio and to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015 [53] comparable to right to life and health.

Complications during pregnancy or childbirth are one of the leading causes of death for adolescent girls, 140 million women worldwide married or in civil union would like to delay or avoid pregnancy, but have no access to family planning.

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Maternal mortality is lower in countries where levels of contraceptive use and skilled attendance at birth are high.