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Conjunctivitis chlamydia infection and n d web

Gita Satpathy, Ocular Microbiology, Dr.

  • Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide;
  • A laboratory-based study from Chennai, in 1995, reported that from 127 conjunctivitis patients, 44 34;
  • A large number of population in densely populated countries such as India, Nepal, China, and within Africa continent are still suffering from trachoma;
  • Therefore, it became clear that the exact prevalence of C.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India.

India is one of the five countries with nearly half of total active trachoma patients.

Chlamydial eye infections: Current perspectives

Global increase in the reproductive tract infection by C. Therefore, kerato eye infections due to chlamydial infections continue to be seen in hospitals. Over the years, there have been advances in laboratory diagnostics, in understanding the pathogenesis, tissue tropism, C. Due attention and research is still needed for the study of C.

  • Even though basis for the tissue tropism of the serotypes is not yet fully known, but the ocular serotypes lack the capacity to synthesize tryptophan and polymorphism is observed in their tarp and pmp genes;
  • In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn;
  • Tissue culture is more sensitive than microscopy but smears are faster and may be advantageous when evaluating neonatal disease.

Chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydial eye infection, Global Elimination of Trachoma 2020, inclusion conjunctivitis, SAFE, trachoma Infections continue to be the most common cause of ocular morbidity and preventable blindness in the underdeveloped and developing countries, accounting for a substantial proportion of all hospital visits. After industrial revolution, general improvements eradicated trachoma from the Western developed world; it continued to persist in Africa, Asia pockets of Australia, and Central and South America.

The infection evokes an intense mixed inflammatory response in the conjunctiva initiated by the cytokines and interferon released by the infected cells. This diffuse infiltration is accompanied by the presence of intermittent follicles B cells surrounded by T cells.

Neonatal conjunctivitis and adult inclusion conjunctivitis are caused by C. Variations in MOMP epitopes determine the type of serovar and may be an important target for the immune response. Even though basis for the tissue tropism of the serotypes is not yet fully known, but the ocular serotypes lack the capacity to synthesize tryptophan and polymorphism is observed in their tarp and pmp genes.

In the endemic communities, reacquisition of the chlamydial infection occurs frequently within a short period of time that results in multiple infections, inflammation, and visual complications. During the initial stage, follicles appear in the upper tarsal conjunctiva which contains white blood cells followed by papillae.

A large number of population in densely populated countries such as India, Nepal, China, and within Africa continent are still suffering from trachoma. Indian scenario India is recognized as one of the major endemic zones of chlamydial eye infection. Currently, it is one of the five countries having about half of the total active trachoma cases of the world.

As per their report, trachoma was hyperendemic in Northern states with the prevalences of Punjab 79. The Northeastern and Southern states had very low prevalence 0.

  • Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide;
  • In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn;
  • Inclusion conjunctivitis is a self-limited suppurative conjunctivitis, acquired by newborns as they transit the birth canal;
  • More recently, there is revival in use of serology in C;
  • Moreover, in large countries such as India, it may not be possible to estimate the exact trachoma prevalence in remote areas.

In 1976, it became a part of the National Program for Control and Prevention of Blindness and was extended to 26 states. As per its report, the active trachoma prevalence was reduced to 10. An average of 7. A 12-year-old 1997—2008 study on C.

A laboratory-based study from Chennai, in 1995, reported that from 127 conjunctivitis patients, 44 34. Rate of prevalence was more in the earlier years 1986—1989: The earliest and easiest method of laboratory diagnosis was by direct detection of inclusion bodies Halberstaedter-Prowazek bodies with Giemsa staining of conjunctival smears. Tissue culture isolation of C. Recently, quantitative real-time PCR has been used to measure the load of C. However, serology may be helpful in the diagnosis of chronic and invasive infections such as LGV.

Causative Agents and Pathogenesis

Therefore, it became clear that the exact prevalence of C. More recently, there is revival in use of serology in C. Immunogenic proteins of C. Moreover, in large countries such as India, it may not be possible to estimate the exact trachoma prevalence in remote areas. It has already been reported that, after mass azithromycin therapy for eradication, trachoma cases are recurring after a few years.

For many socioeconomically backward communities of the world, it may take many decades for improvements in the living standards and hygiene, so as to eliminate chlamydial infections completely.

Therefore, the topic is still relevant and it is necessary to keep a vigil on C. Financial support and sponsorship.