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A study of the relation of tourism in the development of identities

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Guidance to the conception and design of the scientific work, statistical treatment of data, data analysis, and validation of hypotheses. Elaboration of the theoretical framework, data collection, data analysis, writing of the paper.

Elaboration of the theoretical foundation, critical review, writing and preparation of the paper.

  • In this case, there are two different views on the purpose of an event or festival;
  • A study by Nunkoo and Gursoy 2012 carried out in Mauritius, found that residents' support for tourism development is based on the expected benefits and that the gender also influences the support;
  • A theme running through both sets of essays is that of the way that the spread of tourist culture, geographically and socially, contributed to the formation of cultural identities as particular social groups incorporated tourist practices into their lifestyles, and the places they visited acquired distinctive tourist images;
  • Statistical analysis were descriptive and multivariate;
  • The results confirm the touristic potential around cheese, because tourists give a differential value to local products with quality.

The growth of tourism leads to a large increase of tourism products offered in the market. Before travel decision making, and among the many options available, the tourist seeks information about the various destinations. The destination image created in this search process is a key driver for tourists.

Despite the variety of factors that make up a given destination image, the cultural identity is composed of the destination own heritage. Also, to create an identity of a place involves the participation of the residents of the destination.

This study seeks to analyze the brewing culture, as a possible cultural identity of the city of Blumenau and therefore considers the attitudes of the residents. The research is considered exploratory and descriptive, with quantitative approach.

From the review of the literature on the subject, we established twelve hypotheses. We performed data collection and analysis using the following statistical procedures: The results obtained in the research, confirmed seven of the twelve hypotheses, indicating the existence of positive relations between the influence of the habits of the residents and the dimensions of the identity of Blumenau.

It is concluded that it is possible to use the brewery culture as a cultural identity of the city, thus suitable for tourism promotion. Cultural identity; Brewing culture; Tourism promotion.

Aunque exista una diversidad de factores que componen la imagen de un determinado destino, van a ser sus propios elementos que constituyen su identidad cultural. Currently, there are many reasons to move from a place to another and this generates growth in the segment. The Statistical Yearbook of Tourism of 2015 Brasil, 2015 revealed that more than 6.

Recent research in the field of tourism and destination image, as well as in cultural identity and residents' participation underlines and justifies this importance. Regarding the residents' perceptions, Besculides, Lee and Mccormick 2002 consider that tourism brings numerous cultural benefits.

Other relevant studies on this subject are those by Andereck, Valentine, Knopf and Vogt 2005 that used the social exchange theory or by Carniello and Santaella 2012Choo and Park 2011Lavandoski, Tonini and Barretto 2012 a study of the relation of tourism in the development of identities, Nunkoo and Gursoy 2012 that used the social exchange theory and the identity theory.

Knowing that the destination image and identity are related to cultural practices and heritage that identify its residents Azevedo et al. In keeping with the ideas presented, we can examine the extent to which the brewery culture is associated to the city of Blumenau, Santa Catarina Brazil and to its inhabitants. Beer has become ideal for promoting the city which is known as the "Brazilian beer capital". In what refers to the image of Blumenau, it is important to know the reality from the residents' viewpoint and verify if they identify the brewery culture as an element of identity of the city.

This study provides the public and private entities working on tourism promotion with data about destination image and identity, thus contributing to a consistent communication. The aim of this study is to analyze, from the residents' attitudes, the brewery culture as part of the cultural identity of Blumenau and as key element of tourism promotion.

Using hypothesis tests, developed based on the literature, we verified how the identification and habits of the residents, in relation to beer and craft draft beer, influence the perception about the image of Blumenau, their participation in cultural events and knowledge about tourism products.

The city has about 334,002 inhabitants and it became an inducer destination of the Tourist Region of the European Valley Prefeitura Municipal de Blumenau, 2015. According to the Blumenau Municipal Tourism Plan Prefeitura Municipal de Blumenau, 2015the destination presents many traits of German culture, visible in different parts of the city in the architecture, predominantly Enxaimel timber framinghandicrafts, food, and various German-related cultural manifestations.

Tourism, Folklore And The Emergence Of Regional And National Identities

Among these, the Oktoberfest stands out as the major product of the destination. It is considered the second biggest German traditional festival in the world Prefeitura Municipal de Blumenau, 2015 and attracts thousands of tourists to the city.

Moreover, the city has a school offering courses and training on beer production; hosts the annual Brazilian Beer Festival; has the first "micro-malt house" of the country; and is the headquarters location of many national and international awarded micro-breweries.

This study is organized into four sections: The third part presents the methodology followed for carrying out the study. The fourth is the presentation of the results of the sample, Spearman's correlation, hypotheses test, and analysis of results. The findings of this study are a current local view on cultural identity, and seek to contribute to future research on the subject.

It is not possible to take and consume the tourism product anywhere or try it before the buying decision is made. Due to this fact Miranda and Miranda 1999: Tourist attractions are part of the tourism product, and may also reflect the intrinsic, distinctive, and unique character of a community, both in terms of cultural and environmental aspects.

Within this context, a study with tourists and residents of Algarve, Portugal, identified that the core resources of the destination referred to elements of the cultural and natural landscape. As a conclusion, the development of innovative tourism products should be based on the concept of cultural landscape Santos et al. The local food and beverages of a destination can also be a study of the relation of tourism in the development of identities in the tourism product, given that tourists search for original and authentic experiences.

The consumption of local food and beverages establish a link between the tourist and the destination, as Plummer et al. Marketing these products can also help promote and enhance the local identity. The authors also point out that the manufacturing sites of the traditional products can be considered tourist attractions of the place. People visiting such sites become aware of the brand and image of the destination.

Beer, as a characteristic product of a destination, can be represented in visitation to breweries, participation in beer festivals and beer shows, wherein it is possible to taste the product of the region, which often is the motivating factor for visiting a destination.

They surveyed the profile of visitors to the breweries in the region and how they obtained information about the destination. They also assessed the importance of these visits in the itinerary of non-resident tourists. Such information contributes to the recognition of the role of tourism for breweries. The local cuisine and drink are embedded in the tourism product of the destination, which makes significant the resident's identification with the characteristic product of the place and its knowledge, since tourists seek to consume what is specific to the city Plummer et al.

In keeping with these ideas, we put forward the following hypotheses: H1 - The higher the frequency of craft beer and draft beer consumption, the greater the knowledge about the tourism products of Blumenau; H2 - The greater the number of well-known brands of craft beer and draft beer, the greater the knowledge about the tourism products of Blumenau; H3 - The greater the expertise about craft beer and draft beer, the greater the knowledge about the tourism products of Blumenau; H4 - The greater the identification with craft beer and draft beer, the greater the knowledge about the tourism products of Blumenau.

The authors consider that there are a set of factors composing the identity of destination image, which have become an important line of research. Destination image is also linked to cultural practices and heritage that identify the residents and, eventually, attract tourists.

Carniello and Santaella 2012 verified in their study the existence of three types of tourism images: Global image is related to the general view that tourists have of the destinations they want to know; the traditional image results from previous experiences; and the current image represents the destinations created by the media.

Despite the role of advertising in tourism, the findings of the survey conducted with tourists by Carniello and Santaella 2012 show that the perceived destination image is more linked to social relationships and to attributes than to the discourse of the media.

The conceptual model of determinants of a tourism destination image, proposed by Mazzon and Vera 2008highlighted the factor "satisfaction" as antecedent to "loyalty" and "commitment". The model establishes that the image may be considered a mediator between quality, satisfaction, and loyalty, because it represents post-consumption expectations.

From another point of view, Neiman, Geerdink and Pereira 2011 carried out a study that reveals how photography is a determinant motivational drive for tourism when compared to a description of the same destination. The results suggest that expectations, perceptions, and motivations are embedded in a set of internalized sensations and experiences.

The meanings attributed to this set can be positive, negative, or neutral. Echtner and Ritchie 1991 show that destination image influences tourism behavior and that destinations with more positive images tend to be chosen by tourists in the decision-making process.

We can point out that tourist satisfaction depends on the comparison between the images formed, based on the expectations and the image of the reality found. Another aspect regarding the image of the destination perceived by the tourist, is the relationship between the individual and their space.

Stets and Biga 2003 in their identity theory studies establish three impressions. First is the standard, a set of meanings attached to a destination identity. Second is appraisal, based on the feedback from others. The third is the situation resulting from the comparison between perception and the standard, and registers the a study of the relation of tourism in the development of identities of discrepancy between the two.

The discrepancy is expressed in terms of emotions, i. Finally, the emotion results from the comparison between perceptual input and the identity standard One of the factors Andereck 2005 points out is the loss of local identity and culture. The author explains that high-flow destinations attract new residents thus increaseing population.

This increase of residents, along with poor planning by destination managers, leads to a loss of identity and culture of the region. In this way, one can conclude that residents established for a longer time in each environment, are responsible for preserving the local identity and culture. However, Dias and Cassar 2006 consider that the visitor's reconnaissance of the characteristics of the locality and their association with the benefits is a step toward building loyalty.

Regarding the influence of the identification of the residents with the place and regional identity, in what refers to tourism development, Williams et al.

Research with residents of cities near Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area NRAlocated in Virginia, found that tourism-friendly residents are more likely to express stronger ties to the regional character of the destination than to the community. The study shows a higher correlation between length of residence and sense of community and a poor correlation between length of residence and regional identity. The resident also plays a role in identifying elements that make the region unique.

The authenticity of destination image depends greatly on the presence of the residents in the places, their relationship and identification with them. Lavandoski, Tonini and Barretto 2012 identify the value that wine has for the region of the Vale dos Vinhedos, strengthening the local identity of people of Italian descend.

With time, wine has become an asset and a tourist attraction in the region. In another study on wine as a tourism product, it is possible to acknowledge its attraction value for the British Columbia region. From the perspective of tourism development, data presented by Williams and Kelly 2001 show the growth of the wine industry in both quantity and quality in its production and suggest the existence of considerable opportunities for wineries to attract visitors to these rural destinations.

The authors state that wine region residents tend to be more loyal to wine product and their wine region. Silva and Junior 2016 developed research on the factors that influence residents' support for the development of Religious tourism in Santa Cruz RS. The results show that the more residents perceive tourism benefits, the greater the propensity for community support for the development of Religious tourism.

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Wang and Chen 2015 have developed a study on tourism that assesses whether the identity of a place can affect the attitudes of the residents and highlights the importance of the resident's attitude toward the development of tourism. They used place identity theory and social exchange theory, both complement each other in the evaluation of this attitude. A friendly interaction between visitors and residents, for example, creates a significant effect on visitor satisfaction with the destination.

Often the interest of the visitors is put ahead of the needs and concerns of the residents and that can provoke conflicts. In this way, it crucial to take the residents' point of view into account to maintain their support for tourism. A study by Nunkoo and Gursoy 2012 carried out in Mauritius, found that residents' support for tourism development is based on the expected benefits and that the gender also influences the support.

Thus, the inclusion of sociodemographic factors in the studies can improve the prediction of basic behavior, since the theory of identity assumes that individuals do not behave according to discrete and personal decisions. They are embedded in a social structure that influences their behavior. Regarding branding destination strategies, Choo and Park 2011 point out that the relationship between the resident and the tourism destination brand has been little explored in tourism research.

  1. However, Dias and Cassar 2006 consider that the visitor's reconnaissance of the characteristics of the locality and their association with the benefits is a step toward building loyalty.
  2. Destination image is also linked to cultural practices and heritage that identify the residents and, eventually, attract tourists.
  3. These industries helped to shape tourism as an economic and social institution by influencing the way in which particular places were produced for tourists and the manner in which they were perceived, experienced and performed as, for example, in case of the relationship between the British and different parts of continental Europe. In another study on wine as a tourism product, it is possible to acknowledge its attraction value for the British Columbia region.
  4. First is the standard, a set of meanings attached to a destination identity.