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The many changes that came with the action of radical republican after the civil war

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There was movement in both directions: Some wartime Radicals had been conservative Democrats before the war, often taking proslavery positions. They included John A. The Radicals came to majority power in the Congress in the elections of 1866 after several episodes of violence led many to conclude that President Johnson's weaker reconstruction policies were insufficient.

These episodes included the New Orleans riot and the Memphis riots of 1866. In a pamphlet directed to black voters in 1867, the Union Republican Congressional Committee stated: Their most successful and systematic leader was Pennsylvania Congressman Thaddeus Stevens in the House of Representatives. The Democrats were strongly opposed to the Radicals, but they were generally a weak minority in politics until they took control of the House in the 1874 congressional elections.

The moderate and conservative Republican factions usually opposed the Radicals, but they were not well organized. Lincoln tried to build a multi-faction coalition, including radicals, conservatives, moderates and War Democrats as while he was often opposed by the Radicals, he never ostracized them.

Andrew Johnson was thought to be a Radical when he became President in 1865, but he soon became their leading opponent. However, Johnson was so inept as a politician he was unable to form a cohesive support network.

Finally in 1872, the Liberal Republicansmost of them ex Radicals, ran a presidential campaign and won the support of the Democratic Party for their ticket. They argued that Grant and the Radicals were corrupt and had imposed Reconstruction far too long on the South. They were overwhelmingly defeated and collapsed as a movement.

On issues not concerned with the Slave Power, the destruction of the Confederacy, the eradication of slavery and the rights of the Freedmen, Radicals took positions all over the political map.

Reconstruction: After the Civil War, the American South Rebuilds

For example, Radicals who had once been Whigs generally supported high tariffs and ex Democrats generally opposed them. Some men were for hard money and no inflation while others were for soft money and inflation. The argument, common in the 1930s, that the Radicals were primarily motivated by a desire to selfishly promote Northeastern business interests, has seldom been argued by historians for a half-century. Radical Republicans were often critical of Lincoln, who they believed was too slow in freeing slaves and supporting their legal equality.

Lincoln put all factions in his cabinet, including Radicals like Salmon P.

  • They included John A;
  • They helped cause angry whites to form the Ku Klux Klan and other groups that terrorized blacks for years to come;
  • Southern whites had held black people in slavery for many years;
  • The period after the Civil War in the United States was marked by several famous incidents involving violations of the public trust.

Stanton Secretary of War. Lincoln appointed many Radical Republicans, such as journalist James Shepherd Piketo key diplomatic positions. In Congress, the most influential Radical Republicans were U. Senator Charles Sumner and U. They led the call for a war that would end slavery. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May 2016 Opposing Lincoln[ edit ] The Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln's terms for reuniting the United States during Reconstruction 1863which they viewed as too lenient.

They proposed an " ironclad oath " that would prevent anyone who supported the Confederacy from voting in Southern elections, but Lincoln blocked it and once Radicals passed the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864, Lincoln vetoed it. The Radicals demanded a more aggressive prosecution of the war, a faster end to slavery and total destruction of the Confederacy. After the war, the Radicals controlled the Joint Committee on Reconstruction.

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Although he appeared at first to be a Radical, [11] he broke with them and the Radicals and Johnson became embroiled in a bitter struggle. Johnson proved a poor politician and his allies lost heavily in the 1866 elections in the North. The Radicals now had full control of Congress and could override Johnson's vetoes.

Control of Congress[ edit ] After the 1866 electionsthe Radicals generally controlled Congress. Johnson vetoed 21 bills passed by Congress during his term, but the Radicals overrode 15 of them, including the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and four Reconstruction Actswhich rewrote the election laws for the South and allowed blacks to vote while prohibiting former Confederate Army officers from holding office.

As a result of the 1867—1868 elections, the newly empowered freedmen, in coalition with carpetbaggers Northerners who had recently moved south and Scalawags white Southerners who supported Reconstructionset up Republican governments in 10 Southern states all but Virginia.

Describe the political, economic, and social changes that occurred during Reconstruction.

Impeachment[ edit ] The Radical plan was to remove Johnson from office, but the first effort at impeachment went nowhere. Stantonthe House of Representatives voted to impeach him, but he escaped removal from office by the Senate by a single vote in 1868, though he had lost most of his power. Grant in 1865—1868 was in charge of the Army under President Johnson, but Grant generally enforced the Radical agenda.

Grant was elected as a Republican in 1868 and after the election he generally sided with the Radicals on Reconstruction policies and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1871 into law. The Liberals lost badly, but the economy then went into a depression in 1873 and in 1874 the Democrats swept back into power and ended the reign of the Radicals.

The 1876 presidential election was so close that it was decided in those three states despite massive fraud and illegalities on both sides. The Compromise of 1877 called for the election of a Republican as President and his withdrawal of the troops. Hayes withdrew the troops and the Republican state regimes immediately collapsed.