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A description of human nature to change ones personality to fit the situation

People orientation 69 To interpret the results, the clinician looks at the pattern of responses across the different subscales and makes a diagnosis about a description of human nature to change ones personality to fit the situation potential psychological problems facing the patient.

Although clinicians prefer to interpret the patterns themselves, a variety of research has demonstrated that computers can often interpret the results as well as can clinicians Garb, 1998; Karon, 2000. Extensive research has found that the MMPI-2 can accurately predict which of many different psychological disorders a person suffers from Graham, 2006.

One potential problem with a measure like the MMPI is that it asks people to consciously report on their inner experiences. But much of our personality is determined by unconscious processes of which we are only vaguely or not at all aware. Projective measures are measures of personality in which unstructured stimuli, such as inkblots, drawings of social situations, or incomplete sentences, are shown to participants, who are asked to freely list what comes to mind as they think about the stimuli.

Experts then score the responses for clues to personality. The proposed advantage of these tests is that they are more indirect—they allow the respondent to freely express whatever comes to mind, including perhaps the contents of their unconscious experiences. One commonly used projective test is the Rorschach Inkblot Test, developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach 1884—1922. The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a projective measure of personality in which the respondent indicates his or her thoughts about a series of 10 symmetrical inkblots Figure 11.

The Rorschach is administered millions of time every year. The participants are asked to respond to the inkblots, and their responses are systematically scored in terms of what, where, and why they saw what they saw. For example, people who focus on the details of the inkblots may have obsessive-compulsive tendencies, whereas those who talk about sex or aggression may have sexual or aggressive problems.

The Thematic Apperception Test TAT is a projective measure of personality in which the respondent is asked to create stories about sketches of ambiguous situations, most of them of people, either alone or with others Figure 11. The sketches are shown to individuals, who are asked to tell a story about what is happening in the picture. The TAT assumes that people may be unwilling or unable to admit their true feelings when asked directly but that these feelings will show up in the stories about the pictures.

Trained coders read the stories and use them to develop a personality profile of the respondent. Other popular projective tests include those that ask the respondent to draw pictures, such as the Draw-A-Person test Machover, 1949and free association tests in which the respondent quickly responds with the first word that comes to mind when the examiner says a test word.

Investigators allow children to play with the dolls and then try to determine on the basis of the play if the children may have been sexually abused. The idea is that when people view ambiguous stimuli they will describe them according to the aspects of personality that are most important to them, and therefore bypass some of the limitations of more conscious responding.

The reliability of the measures is low because people often produce very different responses on different occasions. The construct validity of the measures is also suspect because there are very few consistent associations between Rorschach scores or TAT scores and most personality traits. The projective tests often fail to distinguish between people with psychological disorders and those without or to correlate with other measures of personality or with behavior.

In sum, projective tests are more useful as icebreakers to get to know a person better, to make the person feel comfortable, and to get some ideas about topics that may be of importance to that person than for accurately diagnosing personality. Psychology in Everyday Life: Leaders and Leadership One trait that has been studied in thousands of studies is leadershipthe ability to direct or inspire others to achieve goals.

What characteristics do you think he possessed that allowed him to create such a strong company, even though many similar companies failed? Because so many characteristics seem to be related to leader skills, some researchers have attempted to account for leadership not in terms of individual traits, but rather in terms of a package of traits that successful leaders seem to have.

Personality Can Change Over A Lifetime, And Usually For The Better

Charismatic leaders are leaders who are enthusiastic, committed, and self-confident; who tend to talk about the importance of group goals at a broad level; and who make personal sacrifices for the group. Charismatic leaders express views that support and validate existing group norms but that also contain a vision of what the group could or should be. Charismatic leaders use their referent power to motivate, uplift, and inspire others. Transactional leaders are the more regular leaders, who work with their subordinates to help them understand what is required of them and to get the job done.

Transformational leaders, on the other hand, are more like charismatic leaders—they have a vision of where the group is going, and attempt to stimulate and inspire their workers to move beyond their present status and to create a new and better future. Despite the fact that there appear to be at least some personality traits that relate to leadership ability, the most important approaches to understanding leadership take into consideration both the personality characteristics of the leader as well as the situation in which the leader is operating.

  • Phrenology and the neurosciences;
  • Leaders and Leadership One trait that has been studied in thousands of studies is leadership , the ability to direct or inspire others to achieve goals.

In some cases the situation itself is important. For instance, you might remember that President George W. In still other cases, different types of leaders may perform differently in different situations. Leaders whose personalities lead them to be more focused on fostering harmonious social relationships among the members of the group, for instance, are particularly effective in situations in which the group is already functioning well and yet it is important to keep the group members engaged in the task and committed to the group outcomes.

Personality is driven in large part by underlying individual motivations, where motivation refers to a need or desire that directs behavior. One of these approaches, known as physiognomy, has been validated by current research. Personalities are characterized in terms of traits—relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behavior across many situations.

The most important and well-validated theory about the traits of normal personality is the Five-Factor Model of Personality.

There is often only a low correlation between the specific traits that a person expresses in one situation and those that he expresses in other situations. This is in part because people tend to see more traits in other people than they do in themselves. Personality predicts behavior better when the behaviors are aggregated or averaged across different situations.

Projective measures are measures of personality in which unstructured stimuli, such as inkblots, drawings of social situations, or incomplete sentences are shown to participants, who are asked to freely list what comes to mind as they think about the stimuli.

Despite their widespread use, however, the empirical evidence supporting the use of projective tests is mixed. Exercises and Critical Thinking Consider your own personality and those of people you know. What traits do you enjoy in other people, and what traits do you dislike? Consider some of the people who have had an important influence on you. What were the personality characteristics of these people that made them so influential? The contingency model of leadership effectiveness: Its level of analysis.

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Psychological Review, 81 6506—520. Advances in Cattellian personality theory. Theory and research pp.

  • Many of us intuitively gravitate toward explaining human behavior in terms of personality traits;
  • Its level of analysis;
  • Some have even argued that personality traits are figments of our imagination that don't exist at all;
  • The Leadership Quarterly, 6 2 , 147—167.

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The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research. European Journal of Personality, 2 3171—203. The clinical interpretation of the Thematic Apperception Test, Rorschach, and other clinical data: A reexamination of statistical versus clinical prediction. Research and Practice, 31 2230—233. An estimate of variance due to traits in leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68 4678—685.

  1. But personality traits clearly influence people's lives in important ways and help explain why two people in similar circumstances often end up with different outcomes.
  2. Adler was essentially forward looking, seeing motivation as a matter of moving toward the future, rather than a product of our pasts driving us with only our limited awareness as to how and why.
  3. Transformational leaders, on the other hand, are more like charismatic leaders—they have a vision of where the group is going, and attempt to stimulate and inspire their workers to move beyond their present status and to create a new and better future. Consider some of the people who have had an important influence on you.
  4. But much of our personality is determined by unconscious processes of which we are only vaguely or not at all aware. Studies in the nature of character.
  5. When we invest in a role that calls for particular kinds of behavior, such as a job that calls for being hard-working and responsible, then over time those behaviors tend to become integrated into our personality. Exercises and Critical Thinking Consider your own personality and those of people you know.

Personality projection in the drawing of the human figure A method of personality investigation. A method of personality investigation pp. Toward a unified theory of personality: Integrating dispositions and processing dynamics within the cognitive-affective processing system.

Theory and research 3rd ed. Behavior as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27 2154—164. Borderline personality disorder and DSM-5.

Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 16 3143—154. Fooled by first impressions?

  • Behavior as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer;
  • But personality traits clearly influence people's lives in important ways and help explain why two people in similar circumstances often end up with different outcomes;
  • They lack energy, in essence, and depend on the energy of others;
  • The varieties of human physique;
  • Transformational leaders, on the other hand, are more like charismatic leaders—they have a vision of where the group is going, and attempt to stimulate and inspire their workers to move beyond their present status and to create a new and better future;
  • Personality and intellectual predictors of leadership.

Reexamining the diagnostic value of appearance-based inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 2315—324. Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31 4609—623.

The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: